“As more Americans confront their own weight issues, furry housemates increasingly struggle alongside them.
New data due out this week indicate the problem is reaching epidemic proportions, with more than half of U.S. dogs and cats now overweight or obese.”
(“When Man’s Best Friend Is Obese”, WSJ Feb. 22, 2011)
Obesity in man and dogs is caused by a combination of genetics, environmental issues, and behavioral factors.1,2,3 Consumption of high-calorie foods, consumption of too much food, and a sedentary lifestyle all work together to create this condition. Obesity is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arthritis, sleep apnea, cholelithiasis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
Similar to Human Obesity, Canine Obesity can be treated with diet, drugs and/or surgically. Diet therapy has been inefficient at best for both man and dogs. The introduction of SlentrolTM by Pfizer in 2007 was the first canine only diet drug therapy available. Adverse effects in up to 25% of treated animals have limited Slentrol’s market. Drug treatment for obesity is difficult, because the amount of weight lost is small and patients tend to regain most of the weight1. Surgical treatment in the form of bariatric data in canines is not as extensive. Canines have been used as models for developing various bariatric techniques4; however, the data is typically contained in publications or company data concerning human therapeutic procedures. Early work intragastric balloons5 in dogs showed that dogs responded and decreased eating to lose weight.5
1.The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). Morbid Obesity. SAGES Web site. Available at http://www.sages.org/sagespublication.php?doc=PI15. Accessed November 10, 2008.
2.The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). Morbid-Obesity.Info. SAGES Web site. Available at http://www.morbid-obesity.info/. Accessed November 10, 2008.
3.National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Obesity Education Initiative
4.Déjardin DDC, Pereferrer FS, González MH, Blasco SB, Slal MA,The Evolution of Experimental Surgery in the Field of Morbid Obesity. Obesity Surgery,2004; 14: 1263-72
5.Durrans D, Taylor TV, Hold S: Intragastric Device for Weight Loss – Effect on Energy Intake in Dogs. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1991; 36: 893-6 [Best Evidence] O’Brien PE, Sawyer SM, Laurie C, Brown WA, Skinner S, Veit F, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese adolescents: a randomized trial. JAMA. Feb 10 2010;303(6):519-26